- Concept of human trafficking from a global perspective
- Defining the term human trafficking based on international and U.S. laws
- Different forms of human trafficking
- History of human trafficking
- Modern trafficking patterns
- Factors giving rise to human trafficking
- Stages of human trafficking
- Predominant characters in the identification of offenders, victims, and consumers
- The art of control over victims
- The invisibility of victims and the difficulty identifying the victim of human trafficking
- Observational and investigative cues to help identify trafficked victims
- Identify trafficking offenders based on specific indicators
- Differences in trafficker’s roles
- Case Management and interagency cooperation aiding in investigations
- Victim-centered approach in investigations
- National and international perspectives concerning efforts to end human trafficking
- Threshold requirements for eligibility of victim benefits and services
- Victim protection under the law
- Recent changes in human trafficking laws
- The importance of victim service providers
- Types of victim service providers
- Victim service requirements as defined by legal parameters
- Importance of inter-agency collaboration
- Importance of seeking help from the community
- Human trafficking case studies
- Importance of a proactive response to human trafficking
- Challenges and barriers to effective investigations of human trafficking
Behavior or Physical State:
- Does the victim act fearful, anxious, depressed, submissive, tense, or nervous/paranoid?
- Does the victim defer to another person to speak for him or her?
- Does the victim show signs of physical and/or sexual abuse, physical restraint, confinement, or torture?
- Has the victim been harmed or deprived of food, water, sleep, medical care, or other life necessities?
- Does the victim have few or no personal possessions?
- Can the victim freely contact friends or family?
- Is the victim allowed to socialize or attend religious services?
- Does the victim have freedom of movement?
- Has the victim or family been threatened with harm if the victim attempts to escape?
Work Conditions and Immigration Status:
- Does the victim work excessively long and/or unusual hours?
- Is the victim a juvenile engaged in commercial sex?
- Was the victim recruited for one purpose and forced to engage in some other job?
- Is the victim’s salary being garnished to pay off a smuggling fee? (Paying off a smuggling fee alone is not considered trafficking.)
- Has the victim been forced to perform sexual acts?
- Has the victim been threatened with deportation or law enforcement action?
- Is the victim in possession of identification and travel documents; if not, who has control of the documents?