Lesson 6 – Trafficking

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Human Trafficking

  • Concept of human trafficking from a global perspective
  • Defining the term human trafficking based on international and U.S. laws
  • Different forms of human trafficking
  • History of human trafficking
  • Modern trafficking patterns
  • Factors giving rise to human trafficking
  • Stages of human trafficking
  • Predominant characters in the identification of offenders, victims, and consumers
  • The art of control over victims
  • The invisibility of victims and the difficulty identifying the victim of human trafficking
  • Observational and investigative cues to help identify trafficked victims
  • Identify trafficking offenders based on specific indicators
  • Differences in trafficker’s roles
  • Case Management and interagency cooperation aiding in investigations
  • Victim-centered approach in investigations
  • National and international perspectives concerning efforts to end human trafficking
  • Threshold requirements for eligibility of victim benefits and services


  • Victim protection under the law
  • Recent changes in human trafficking laws
  • The importance of victim service providers
  • Types of victim service providers
  • Victim service requirements as defined by legal parameters
  • Importance of inter-agency collaboration
  • Importance of seeking help from the community
  • Human trafficking case studies
  • Importance of a proactive response to human trafficking
  • Challenges and barriers to effective investigations of human trafficking


‌Behavior or Physical State:

  • Does the victim act fearful, anxious, depressed, submissive, tense, or nervous/paranoid?
  • Does the victim defer to another person to speak for him or her?
  • Does the victim show signs of physical and/or sexual abuse, physical restraint, confinement, or torture?
  • Has the victim been harmed or deprived of food, water, sleep, medical care, or other life necessities?
  • Does the victim have few or no personal possessions?


‌Social Behavior:

  • Can the victim freely contact friends or family?
  • Is the victim allowed to socialize or attend religious services?
  • Does the victim have freedom of movement?
  • Has the victim or family been threatened with harm if the victim attempts to escape?

‌Work Conditions and Immigration Status:

  • Does the victim work excessively long and/or unusual hours?
  • Is the victim a juvenile engaged in commercial sex?
  • Was the victim recruited for one purpose and forced to engage in some other job?
  • Is the victim’s salary being garnished to pay off a smuggling fee? (Paying off a smuggling fee alone is not considered trafficking.)
  • Has the victim been forced to perform sexual acts?
  • Has the victim been threatened with deportation or law enforcement action?
  • Is the victim in possession of identification and travel documents; if not, who has control of the documents?
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